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To work out a pro-active and efficient integration strategy, it is very important to overview and to assess deeply the process of trade liberalization and integration in Vietnam.
The structure of the remainder of the paper is as follows.
The number of enterprises registered for trading activities increased from 2400 in the early of 1998 to about 18000 in early 2004.
Since 2002, the foreign invested enterprises (FIEs) have been also granted the right to export goods other than those they produce.
Section IV examines the progress and the possible impacts of Vietnam's WTO accession. Trade policy: Evolution and problems The process of Vietnam's trade liberalization has been overviewed in a number of studies .
Section V raises some key issues and challenges confronting Vietnam's further trade liberalization and integration. It is very much related to Vietnam's efforts to ensuring trading right, protecting domestic production, especially the SOE sector (though the level of protection has declined in accordance to international commitments), and creating incentives for export promotion.
These achievements can be attributed to four factors: (1) the acknowledgement of the private business right; (2) the market-oriented reforms; (3) the macroeconomic and social stability; and (4) the opening (mostly in terms of trade and FDI) and the integrating of the economy into the regional and world economy.The reform process in Vietnam, however, has been uneven.It was recognized even in 1996 that the reforms were not keeping pace with economic development.The trading right before 1989 was essentially characterized by the state monopoly in foreign trade.Since 1989, together with the market-oriented reforms, the entry into trading activities has been gradually relaxed.